5 Urdu words I wish we had in English

I grew up in Pakistan speaking a mix of three different languages: Urdu, Punjabi (regional language) and English. After high school, I moved southwest to Karachi by the Arabian Sea, where Punjabi was not widely understood. Filtering out my regional language to only speak English or Urdu separately — without mixing the three languages together — was a process that took several years. 

Even though I count English as my first language — I read best in it, I write it best, I understand complicated concepts in it — Urdu is my mother tongue. It is the language my soul connects with. Like every other language, Urdu has distinctive words that lose part of their meaning and evocation when translated. Here are five Urdu words that I can translate into English, but they just don’t mean the same thing:

1. Acha (اچھا)


Literally, acha” means “nice.” In reality, though, it can have dozens of meanings when used in everyday conversation. It can be used as a “yeah, yeah, whatever.” It can mean “OK,” and when used with a certain tone, it can be used as the exclamation “Really?!” Another inflection in tone could translate it to “Ohhhhh, I see.” It is used as a filler of silence in conversation (“hmmm”), is often used to praise children—“acha bacha” (good/kind/well-mannered child) and to admire everything from cloth, to food, to people.

Acha is a very common word; I probably use it at least five times a day and, when I stop and think about it, it’s rather cool to have one word express so many different reactions.

2. Phuppo (پھپھو )

Via Phupho Memes: http://bit.ly/2dvZCXj
Via Phupho Memes: http://bit.ly/2dvZCXj

“Phuppo” (also commonly spelled “phupho“) is a word loaded with cultural connotations and sly barbs, and refers to the stereotype of an evil aunt — specifically, a father’s sister* — who is out to make life miserable for you and your family.

Countless jokes, memes, and gifs take jabs at “Phuppos” across the spectrum. There is even a Facebook page called “Phupho that makes fun of a Pakistani’s tricky relationship with their Phupho.

Granted that often the socio-cultural-historical set-up makes this stereotype not too far from the truth but, my sister likes to hashtag #NotAllPhupposAreEvil when posting pictures with our nephew (yes, I’m a Phuppo too!). When earlier this year my nephew called me Phuppo for the first time, I thought it was the most beautiful designation in the world! But, I also know that it is a tricky one.

*In Urdu there is no common proper noun for “Aunt.” Each aunt (mothers’ sister, father’s sister, mother’s brother’s wife, father’s older brother’s wife, father’s younger brother’s wife) has a different name so one can tell instantly which aunt you are talking about.

3. Variations of “love”: Ishq (عشق), Mohabbat (محبت), Pyar (پیار) and more


There is no one word for “love” in Urdu, the way there is in English. You cannot just “love” the burger you’re eating and love your significant other the same way; you need to use different words.

There are numerous words that describe love ranging from really liking the new t-shirt you bought, to being hopelessly head over heels for someone, and — if you really start getting into Urdu poetry — all the way up to the highest form of spiritual love one has for God. Each implies a distinct kind and different level of love. For adoration, you might say “mohabbat”; for devotion and passion, “ishq“; for love bordering on madness, “deewangi,” and so on. The use and interchanging of each is not as simple as having one standard word for each type though.

There is an old Bollywood film titled, “Pyar, Ishq, Aur Mohabbat,” which makes complete sense to me but, were I to translate for someone it would sound rather ridiculous: “Love, Love, and Love.”

4. Seerat (سيرة)

Not the most commonly used word, but I have been obsessing over “seerat” for the past few months after it was used in a song* where a girl is described as being as beautiful as a fairy, with a soul (seerat) as kind as Mariam’s (Mary’s). I remember thinking, “What a lovely compliment focusing equally on inner worth as well as outer beauty.”

English translations of seerat” will pull up meanings like “nature,” “disposition,” “inner beauty,” and “soul.” In my opinion, it means all of these combined — and more. The English versions just don’t seem to have the “oomph” this word comes with in Urdu.

*The artists featured in the video are singing in Punjabi. 

5. Bus (بس)


Bus, has a few different meanings including,” “stop,” “enough,” or “that’s all.” My favorite use of it is on its own, in an incomplete sentence used as a response when you do not want to give one:

“Why did you buy new sunglasses when you already have three pairs?”


“Why can’t I skip school today?”


“Why do you want a career in underwater basket weaving?”


It could roughly translate as “because,” when used as a stand-alone. I have no statistics, but I would broadly approximate that this word is used most often between parents and children and, at different times, works to both their advantage.

Languages are one of the most beautiful and astounding things on earth, in my opinion. I am extremely privileged to be able to understand three, but I’m always wishing I knew more. You cannot just substitute one for another; centuries of history, culture, and stories are wrapped up in every single word.

How many will you unravel?

This story has been updated since its original publication.


  1. Every language has words and expression that are rooted in or have been adapted from the culture or social norms of its speakers. You are talking about Urdu as if it is some rich language like Arabic that contains words which cannot be translated into other languages. Despite the fact that Urdu is a mix of languages (mainly Farsi and Arabic) – having the advantage of being able to borrow words from these father languages anytime, it is still a very incomplete language especially as far as spoken Urdu is concerned. You will never hear an Urdu speaker without hearing an English word in almost every sentence even in cases where the person is not even schooled in the English language. Watch a Pakistani tv channel or watch a Pakistani cricketer being interviewed.

    But nonetheless, I admire your love for your native language. Keep it up

    1. Armaan, this mixing of Urdu and English started only a few years back. Before it Urdu was a beautiful language, developed enough to be complete in itself. Even today English words and sentences in Urdu conversation are used not because we do not have proper Urdu words and sentences but because English has unfortunately become a status symbol in our part of the world and it is our inferiority complex that makes us use words and sentences of this language so frequently.

      1. What really irks me the most is Urdu written in Roman script. I unequivocally, absolutely detest, despise loathe this practise. Urdu vocabulary being dominated by Farsi and Arabic loses its uniqueness and the meaning is lost; for example,

        اثر اور عصر؛ اِسم اور اِثم؛ آثِم اور عاصم

        and lot more words cannot be represented in Roman script; in addition خون becomes کُھون. So on and so forth.

    2. Nabeeha – Like you, I speak three languages English (link language in office, out of home case), Tamil my local regional language and Urdu, my mother tongue which I love more than any language. I see that bollywood is influencing Urdu with English here, and by the way, if one speaks with ulema or scholar, they willl realise to see that there will be no English words in their language – just my observation. Armaan, have you heard about Tamil, one of the oldest language, if you move southern part of Tamil Nadu – heartland of tamils, still you can listen mix of Urdu language in Tamil like Nashta (Breakfast), bejar (bezaar – boring), Amana irukum (Aman se hai or living in peace)….Google Urdu words used in Tamil………since it was said, the sun never sets in British Empire, English is widely adopted in almost every languages. Good to come across this article and others thoughts in comments.

    3. Urdu is basically a Sanskrit language- its grammatical rules, word order etc follow the same rules as Sanskrit, Hindi, Punjabi , Pahari & other languages of northern Indian subcontinent. It developed in the early times of the Islamic invasions & conquest of the subcontinent when the Arabic Farsi & Turkic language newcomer preachers, merchants, military rulers needed to communicate with the native inhabitants. There are official court records of where early Urdu is used in the Hydrabad Caliphate on the eastern coast of India. The development of Urdu has been studied by linguistic scholars ….the British policy designated Urdu as for Muslims & since Partition there has been a deliberate policy by Pakistan to increase use of Persisn & Arabic vocabulary to differentiate Urdu from Hindi & use it politically for national & religious identity. Why??? Divide & rule colonialist language policies continued. Good wishes in your search for knowledge. Languages are fascinating & fun. Keep digging x

  2. I adored reading your article and it made me laugh aloud. I’m an American trying desperately to learn Urdu. In fact, I came across the article while searching for verb tenses in Urdu. I love those perfectly stated yet untranslated words from different languages like Khalas in Arabic etc. Anyway, thanking for sharing.

    1. My plea to you is please learn the original alphabets. They are a bit difficult but if you truly want to enjoy Urdu, avoid Urdu written in Roman script.

      I very much like learning different languages and managed to learn Russian, transliteration of which in Roman script should be a crime!

  3. I have been obsessing over “seerat” for the past few months after it was used in a song* where a girl is described as being as beautiful as a fairy, with a soul (seerat) as kind as Mariam’s (Mary’s).

    I was horrified when I read the lyrics above and thought that they had blasphemed using Mariam alaihis salam’s name, (The mother of Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him). You can only use that compliment for a pious girl.

    Then I realised that Alia Bhatt’s character’s name was Mary Jane. Then I felt so much rellief. As long as they are referring to the character who unfortunately was a drug addict in the movie the that’s fine. I was relieved.

  4. Meaning that the lyrics are saying the girl has a soul as kind as Marium (Mary Jane the character). That’s is fine because addicts are human beings too. They are just poor souls who are hurting and troubled.

  5. Just came across this article. Great job explaining all the nuances which is very hard to explain to someone who did not grow up speaking the language. And I agree: “bus” is probably most often used by parents when talking to their children! The no-nonsense finality of the word says it all.

  6. Enjoyed reading the piece. Regional languages have an unmatched richness and variety that English, in its brevity, misses out on.

  7. How about “tarbee’at” with its multiple meanings, none of which can be satisfactorily replaced by an English word.

  8. I liked this article very much because I also live in Pakistan, such as you do. I also want to have those words in English to understand the meanings quickly and more efficiently. I have some other words that I want in English;
    1: Nani (نانی) and dadi (دادی)
    2: Dada (دادا) and Nana (نانا)
    And so on…

  9. Terrific article. It is nice that you thought about such topic and presented it very nicely, a thought provoking.

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